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8

Check your state's laws. Many people also qualify to file their federal and state returns simultaneously thereby potentially streamlining the process even more.

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6 comments
64

I realize that this will be an unpopular post consider OP yesterday lied in plain sight and nobody called him out. The post from yesterday, [here] (https://np.reddit.com/r/YouShouldKnow/comments/aibzei/ysk_that_chiropractic_spinal_manipulation_has/), incorrectly stated that a causal relationship was demonstrated in the research and linked two studies to support that. The problem is that both of the studies OP linked explicitly state that no causal relationship was present. First I'll quote those two studies, then I'll post more large-scale research that says the same thing.

First the two studies from the previous post:

first study

Collectively, these data suggest that spinal manipulation is associated with frequent, mild and transient adverse effects as well as with serious complications which can lead to permanent disability or death. Yet causal inferences are, of course, problematic. Vascular accidents may happen spontaneously or could have causes other than spinal manipulation. A temporal relationship is insufficient to establish causality, and recall bias can further obscure the truth.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1905885/

second study

maximum observed effect size (observed at Day15) was an additional risk of 3 strokes per 10,000 office visits for the primary care cohort. Although statistically significant, this difference - as well as the crossover effect seen in Figure 3 - may not be clinically significant. The lack of a mechanism by which an office visit might cause a non-VBS stroke and the decreasing likelihood of a causal relationship over 30 days also cast doubt upon the clinical significance of these between-cohort differences in results.

The true probability of stroke is probably unaffected by an office visit to either type of provider

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4336806/

Now here is the most up to date research on the topic:

The Department of Neurosurgery at Penn state did a meta-analysis in February of 2016 which looked at 253 studies on cervical manipulation and VBA stroke.

In spite of the very weak data supporting an association between chiropractic neck manipulation and CAD, and even more modest data supporting a causal association, such a relationship is assumed by many clinicians. In fact, this idea seems to enjoy the status of medical dogma. Excellent peer reviewed publications frequently contain statements asserting a causal relationship between cervical manipulation and CAD [4,25,26]. We suggest that physicians should exercise caution in ascribing causation to associations in the absence of adequate and reliable data. Medical history offers many examples of relationships that were initially falsely assumed to be causal [27], and the relationship between CAD and chiropractic neck manipulation may need to be added to this list.[emphasis mine]

What did they mean by "even more modest data supporting a causal association"?

We found no evidence for a causal link between chiropractic care and CAD. This is a significant finding because belief in a causal link is not uncommon, and such a belief may have significant adverse effects such as numerous episodes of litigation.

http://www.cureus.com/articles/4155-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-chiropractic-care-and-cervical-artery-dissection-no-evidence-for-causation

2017 study examining 15,523 stroke cases. it said:

We found no excess risk of carotid artery stroke after chiropractic care. Associations between chiropractic and PCP visits and stroke were similar and likely due to patients with early dissection-related symptoms seeking care prior to developing their strokes.

http://www.strokejournal.org/article/S1052-3057(16)30434-7/fulltext?cc=y=

2015 study, 1829 stroke patients studied over 3 years.

We found no significant association between exposure to chiropractic care and the risk of VBA stroke. We conclude that manipulation is an unlikely cause of VBA stroke. The positive association between PCP visits and VBA stroke is most likely due to patient decisions to seek care for the symptoms (headache and neck pain) of arterial dissection.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26085925

All large-scale research demonstrates no causation, but we can look at studies on mechanism also:

A 2002 study, comparing strains necessary to cause a dissection vs strains sustained during a cervical manipulation:

SMT resulted in strains to the VA that were almost an order of magnitude lower than the strains required to mechanically disrupt it. We conclude that under normal circumstances, a single typical (high-velocity/low-amplitude) SMT thrust is very unlikely to mechanically disrupt the VA.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12381972

Another study on mechanism, this one from the Journal of clinical biomechanics (2014). This study sought to assess the amount of force put on the vertebral artery during a cervical manipulation. The study found that the amount of force put on the vertebral artery during manipulation are not sufficient to cause a dissection.

The results of this study suggest that vertebral artery strains during head movements including spinal manipulation, do not exceed published failure strains. This study provides new evidence that peak strain in the vertebral artery may not occur at the end range of motion, but rather at some intermediate point during the head and neck motion.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25457973

In the future, research may find that Chiropractic causes strokes, but to date, no such research exists

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12 comments
85

I’ve seen this too many times in the last few days with drivers using their running lights as headlights which causes the lights on the back of the car to be dark thus making it hard for other drivers to see them.

Please use your actual headlights at night!

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10 comments
39

Quiz: Can We Guess Which State You Live In?

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1

It might freak you out a bit but [LexisNexis has a LOT](https://personalreports.lexisnexis.com/access_your_full_file_disclosure.jsp) of information on everyone in the US. See what they have on you and you'll know where to start.

Using a private credit card like [Privacy](http://privacy.com) can help mask what kind of things you're interested in from data siphoning companies.

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13

Citrus fruits and grapefruit juice in particular has been shown to inhibit the absorption of many orally prescribed medications, particularly those that are not extended release. In certain cases this interaction becomes toxic to the body.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grapefruit%E2%80%93drug_interactions

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10 comments
13

After using a cell phone, iPad, tablet, laptop, or any other electronic device for even a few days it is filled with sensitive information including account passwords, emails, personal texts and photos, etc. As it turns out resetting to “factory settings” which is a common option within most devices settings doesn’t actually fully protect you and your data. Experienced computer hackers can still recover that sensitive information.

What is recommended instead is to encrypt your data and THEN perform the factory restoration. Essentially this encryption is a 7x over blockade that will overwrite all of your stored data with a random pattern of 1’s and 0’s, seven times. Experienced hackers can still dig down to your accounts etc., they will just come up overwritten by the code of the encryption, not to mention this makes it significantly more challenging and risky to attempt.

Perhaps this is an unlikely problem to have, but it’s a good thing to keep in mind especially for work devices or electronics with intensely personal data. Better to not learn the hard way!

If interested in reading more: https://www.google.com/amp/s/www.theverge.com/platform/amp/2015/5/26/8661461/android-factory-reset-disk-encryption-resale (This article focuses around Android devices)

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3 comments
6.1k

Pre-emptive: I'm not saying "don't see a chiropractor." It's just worth seeing the information and being informed.

Formal research tends to be lacking on chiropractic care. However, at least two studies indicate some significant level of risk associated with chiropractic manipulation.

The first study analyzed existing documentation to find that "[s]pinal manipulation, particularly when performed on the upper spine, is frequently associated with [...] adverse effects. It can also result in [...] vertebral artery dissection followed by stroke." The findings continue to state that "[d]issection of the vertebral arteries was the most common problem; other complications included dural tear, oedema, nerve injury, disc herniation, haematoma and bone fracture. The symptoms were frequently life-threatening, though in most cases the patient made a full recovery. In the majority of cases, spinal manipulation was deemed to be the probable cause of the adverse effect." Finally: "Collectively, these data suggest that spinal manipulation is associated with frequent, mild and transient adverse effects as well as with serious complications which can lead to permanent disability or death. Yet causal inferences are, of course, problematic."

The second study weighs two cohorts with each other: Medicare B beneficiaries aged 66-99 seeing either chiropractic providers or primary care physicians (but not both):
"The proportion of subjects with stroke of any type in the chiropractic cohort was [0.12%] at 7 days, and [0.51%] at 30 days. In the primary care cohort, the proportion of subjects with stroke of any type was [0.14%] at 7 days, and [0.28%] at 30 days. In the chiropractic cohort, the adjusted risk of stroke was significantly lower at 7 days as compared to the primary care cohort [...], but at 30 days, a slight elevation in risk was observed for the chiropractic cohort [...] [ indicated by this figure ]."

Among the diagnoses confirmed to have prevailed after a chiropractic manipulation were:

  • Vertebrobasilar Stroke (ICD-10 I63.219)

  • Vertebral Artery Dissection (ICD-10 I77.74)

  • Dural Tear (ICD-10 G96.11)

  • Horner's Syndrome (ICD-10 G90.2)

  • Haematoma of Ligamentum Flavum at CIII - CIV (ICD-10 N83.7)

  • Intercranial Hypotension (ICD-10 G97.2)

  • Retinal Embolism (ICD-10 H34.9)

  • Cervical Disc Herniation (ICD-10 M50.10)

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